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Researching the Prophets: Citation Tools

Resources compiled by your teachers and librarians to help you study the prophets of the Old Testament.

MLA Citation Maker

Using In-Text Citations

Also called parenthetical references (because they appear inside parentheses), in-text citations indicate where specific information comes from.

You must use parenthetical references to cite any information that comes from a source you used in your research:

  • direct quotations 
    • using an author's exact words
    • must use quotation marks
  • indirect quotations
    • paraphrasing
    • summarizing

The parenthetical reference always comes at the end of the sentence. You must indicate both the author and page number of the work you are citing, either in your text or your parenthetical reference, or a combination of the two.

Cite the Bible (In-Text Citations)

The first time you use a parenthetical reference, indicate which Bible you are using and italicize the title of the specific Bible version. For example, at Jesuit, we most commonly use The Catholic Youth Bible.

When you refer generally to the Bible (rather than a specific version) do not italicize it. Do not italicize or put quotation marks around individual books of the bible. After naming the book of the bible, indicate the chapter and verses, separated by a period.


Ezekiel saw "what seemed to be four living creatures," each with faces of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle (New Jerusalem Bible, Ezek. 1.5-10).

If all your references use the same edition of the Bible, future parenthetical references only need to list the book, chapter and verse.


Cite the Bible (Works Cited)

In your works cited list, give the title of the bible, version, and publication information including editors and publishers.

Example:  Zondervan NIV Study Bible.  Fully rev. ed.  Kenneth L. Barker, gen. ed.
                    Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2002.  Print.

Sample Citations

In-Text Citation

The pastoral language in the book of Amos reflects the prophet's experience as a sheepbreeder in the kingdom of Judah, where the imagery of farming would have been familiar to him ("Amos - Introduction"). For example, Amos writes, "Beware, I will crush you into the ground as a wagon crushes when laden with sheaves," using the farming image of a wagon heavy with grain to issue his warning (Catholic Study Bible, Amos 2:13). Later, he again uses images of the shepherd when describing the salvation of the Israelites:

Thus says the Lord: As the shepherd snatches from the mouth of the lion a pair of legs of the tip of an ear of his sheep, so the Israelites who dwell in Samaria shall escape with the corner of a couch or a piece of a cot. (Amos 3:12)

Works Cited

"Amos - Introduction." The New American Bible, Revised Edition. United States Council

of Catholic Bishops, 2011. Web. 20 Feb. 2016. 

The Catholic Youth Bible. New American Bible, Revised Edition. Brian Singer-Towns, ed. Winona, MN: St. Mary's Press, 2002. Print.

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